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Glossary

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A

Agriculture

Farming or growing crops.
Català: Agricultura
Česky: zemědělství
Deutsch: Landwirtschaft
Español: Agricultura
Français: agriculture
Italiano: agricoltura
Latviešu: agrikultūra, laukkopība
Lietuvių: žemės ūkis
Nederlands: landbouw
Norsk: jordbruk
Polski: rolnictwo
Português: agricultura
Română: agricultură
Русский: cельское хозяйство
Suomi:

Amber

Yellow or red fossilised resin remains of coniferous trees eg pines.
Catala: ambre
Česky: jantar
Deutsch: Bernstein
Español: ambar
Français: ambre
Italiano: ambra
Latviešu: dzintars
Lietuvių: gintaras
Nederlands: barnsteen
Norsk: rav
Polski: bursztyn
Português: âmbar
Română: chihlimbar
Русский: янтарь
Suomi:

Antler

The horns on a deer's head
Català: banya
Česky: parohy
Deutsch: Geweih
Español: astas
Français: bois (cervidé)
Italiano: palco
Latviešu: brieža rags
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: gewei
Norsk: gevir
Polski: poroże
Português: galhada
Română: coroana cerbului
Русский:
Suomi:

Archaeological open-air museum

An archaeological open-air museum is a non-profit permanent institution with outdoor true to scale architectural reconstructions primarily based on archaeological sources. It holds collections of intangible heritage resources and provides an interpretation of how people lived and acted in the past; this is accomplished according to sound scientific methods for the purposes of education, study and enjoyment of its visitors.
Català: Museu arqueòlogic a l’aire lliure
Česky:
Deutsch: Archäologisches Freilichtmuseum
Español: Museo arqueológico al aire libre
Français:
Italiano: Museo archeologico all'aperto
Latviešu: Arheoloģiskais brīvdabas muzejs
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: archeologisch openluchtmuseum
Norsk: Arkeologisk friluftsmuseum
Polski:
Português: museu ao ar livre
Română: muzeu arheologic în aer liber
Русский:
Suomi:

archaeological open-air museums

Plural of archaeological open-air museum.

An archaeological open-air museum is a non-profit permanent institution with outdoor true to scale architectural reconstructions primarily based on archaeological sources. It holds collections of intangible heritage resources and provides an interpretation of how people lived and acted in the past; this is accomplished according to sound scientific methods for the purposes of education, study and enjoyment of its visitors.
Català: Museus arqueòlogic a l’aire lliure
Česky:
Deutsch: Archäologische Freilichtmuseen
Español: Museos arqueológico al aire libre
Français:
Italiano:
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: archeologische openluchtmusea
Norsk: Arkeologisk friluftsmuseer
Polski:
Português: museus ao ar livre
Română:
Русский:
Suomi:

Archaeology

The study of human society through the materials and data that they have left behind such as artifacts, architecture and cultural landscapes.
Definition source Wikipedia
Català: arqueologia
Česky: archeologie
Deutsch: Archäologie
Español: arqueología
Français: archéologie
Italiano: archeologia
Latviešu: arheoloģija
Lietuvių: archeologija
Nederlands: archeologie
Norsk: arkeologi
Polski: archeologia
Português: arqueologia
Română: arheologie
Русский: археология
Suomi: arkeologia

Archaeotechnology

Research into ancient techniques such as handicrafts, hunting and agriculture, and demonstrating them to the public in a museum or Living History site
Catala: arqueotecnologia
Česky: archeotechnika
Deutsch: Archäotechnik
Español: arqueotecnología
Français: archéotechnique
Italiano: archeotecnica
Latviešu: arheotehnoloģija
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: archeotechniek
Norsk: arkeoteknikk
Polski: archeotechnika
Português: archeotecnologia
Română: arheotehnologie
Русский:
Suomi:

Army

Group of people armed and organised to fight. A military group.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Català: exèrcit
Česky: armáda
Deutsch: Heer
Español: ejercito
Français: armée
Italiano: esercito
Latviešu: armija
Lietuvių: sausumos kariuomenė
Nederlands: leger
Norsk: hær
Polski: armia
Português: exército
Română: armată, oaste
Русский: армия
Suomi: maavoimat

Arrow

Pointed stick with feathers, fired from a bow, used as a weapon or for hunting
Català: fletxa
Česky: šíp
Deutsch: Pfeil
Español: flecha
Français: flèche
Italiano: freccia
Latviešu: bulta
Lietuvių: strėlė
Nederlands: pijl
Norsk: pil
Polski: strzała
Português: flecha
Română: săgeată
Русский: стрела
Suomi: nuoli

Art

A work of visual beauty eg painting, carving.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Català: art
Česky: umění
Deutsch: Kunst
Español: arte
Français: l'art
Italiano: arte
Latviešu: māksla
Lietuvių: menas
Nederlands: kunst
Norsk: kunst
Polski: sztuka
Português: arte
Română: artă
Русский: искусство
Suomi: taide

Atlatl

A wooden shaft used to propel a spear or dart, mainly used by Aztec and other South American tribes
Català: atlatl
Česky: vrhač oštěpů
Deutsch: Speerschleuder, Atlatl
Español: átlatl
Français: propulseur
Italiano: propulsore
Latviešu: atlatl
Lietuvių: Ietisvaidė
Nederlands: atlatl
Norsk: atlatl
Polski: atlatl
Português: propulsor (arma)
Română: propulsor de suliţă, atlatl
Русский: копьеметалка
Suomi: vipukeihäs

Axe

Hand tool or weapon with long handle and heavy metal blade, used for chopping wood
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Català: destral
Česky: sekera
Deutsch: 1. Axt (f) (mit Schaftloch); 2. Beil (n) (ohne Schaftloch)
Español: hacha
Français: hache
Italiano: scure, ascia
Latviešu: cirvis
Lietuvių: kirvis
Nederlands: bijl
Norsk: øks
Polski: topór
Português: machado
Română: topor
Русский: tопор
Suomi: kirves

B

Bark

The outer layer of a tree.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Català: escorça
Česky:
Deutsch: Borke, Rinde
Español: corteza
Français:
Italiano: corteccia
Latviešu: miza
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: schors
Norsk: bark
Polski:
Português: súber
Română: scoarţă
Русский:
Suomi:

Basket

A container made of plaited or interwoven twigs or canes, often with a handle across the top.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Català: cistell
Česky:
Deutsch: Korb
Español: cesto
Français:
Italiano: cesto
Latviešu: grozs
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: mand
Norsk: kurv
Polski:
Português: cesto
Română: coş
Русский:
Suomi:

Beads

Small and usually round balls made of glass or stone et cetera strung with others eg in a necklace.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: denes
Česky:
Deutsch: Perlen
Español: cuentas
Français:
Italiano: perle/ elementi di collana
Latviešu: pērlīte, krelles
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: kralen
Norsk: perler
Polski:
Português: miçangas
Română: mărgele
Русский:
Suomi:

Beer

Alcoholic drink brewed from cereal grains such as barley.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Català: cervesa
Česky:
Deutsch: bier
Español: cerveza
Français:
Italiano: birra
Latviešu: alus
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: bier
Norsk: øl
Polski: pivo
Português: cerveja
Română: bere
Русский:
Suomi:

Bibliography

A list of books on a subject.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: bibliografia
Česky:
Deutsch: Bibliografie
Español: bibliografía
Français:
Italiano: bibliografia
Latviešu: bibliogrāfija
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: bibliografie
Norsk: bibliografi
Polski:
Português: bibliografia
Română: bibliografie
Русский:
Suomi:

Bird

Flying creature with wings, feathers and a beak.
Catala: ocell
Česky:
Deutsch: Vogel
Español: pájaro
Français:
Italiano: uccello
Latviešu: putns
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: vogel
Norsk: fugel
Polski: ptak
Português: pássaro
Română: pasăre
Русский:
Suomi:

Bloom

A bloomery is a type of furnace once widely used for smelting iron from its oxides. The bloomery was the earliest form of smelter capable of smelting iron. A bloomery's product is a porous mass of iron and slag called a bloom. This mix of slag and iron in the bloom is termed sponge iron, which is usually consolidated (shingled) and further forged into wrought iron. The bloomery has now largely been superseded by the blast furnace, which produces pig iron. (Wikipedia)

Català:
Česky:
Deutsch:Luppe
Español:
Français: Loupe
Hrvatski:
Íslenska:
Italiano: fornace di riduzione
Latviešu:
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: wolf
Norsk:
Polski:
Português:
Română:
Русский:
Suomi:

Boat

A small vessel for travelling over water (see also ship).
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: barca
Česky:
Deutsch: Boot
Español: barca, bote
Français:
Italiano: barca
Latviešu: laiva
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: boot
Norsk: båt
Polski:
Português: barco
Română: barcă
Русский:
Suomi:

Bone

Hard dense tissue forming the skeleton
Catala: os
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. Knochen (m); 2. Bein
Español: hueso
Français:
Italiano: 1. ossa; 2. osso
Latviešu: kauls
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: bot, been
Norsk: bein
Polski:
Português: osso
Română: os
Русский:
Suomi:

Bow

Weapon for shooting arrows.
Catala: arc
Česky:
Deutsch: Bogen
Español: arco
Français:
Italiano: arco
Latviešu: loks
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: boog
Norsk: bue
Polski:
Português: arco
Română: arc
Русский:
Suomi:

Bread

Basic food made from flour mixed with water or milk and baked.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: pa
Česky: chléb
Deutsch: Brot
Español: pan
Français: pain
Italiano: pane
Latviešu: maize
Lietuvių: duona
Nederlands: brood
Norsk: brød
Polski: chleb
Português: pão
Română: pâine
Русский: хлеб
Suomi:

Brewing

The production of beer by converting a mash of grains (usually malted barley) into an alcoholic mixture. It needs yeast to get the fermentation going and flavouring. The process includes several steps like malting, boiling and fermenting.
Catala: fermentar
Česky: výroba piva
Deutsch: brauen
Español: fermentar
Français: brassage
Italiano: birrificazione
Latviešu: brūvēšana
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: brouwen
Norsk: brygging
Polski: warzenie piwa
Português: produção de cerveja
Română: fabricarea berii
Русский: пивоварение
Suomi:

Bronze

A metal, an alloy of copper and tin or lead.
Catala: bronze
Česky: bronz
Deutsch: Bronze
Español: bronce
Français: bronze
Italiano: bronzo
Latviešu: bronza
Lietuvių: bronza
Nederlands: brons
Norsk: bronse
Polski: brązy
Português: bronze
Română: bronz
Русский: бронза
Suomi: pronssi

Bronze Age

Period from about 2200 to 700BC. The second of the three ages (Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age), during which smelting and casting were developed
Catala: edat del bronze
Česky: doba bronzová
Deutsch: Bronzezeit
Español: edad del bronce
Français: âge du bronze
Italiano: etá del bronzo
Latviešu: bronzas laikmets
Lietuvių: bronzos amžius
Nederlands: bronstijd
Norsk: bronsealderen
Polski: epoka brązu
Português: idade do bronze
Română: epoca bronzului
Русский: бронзовый век
Suomi: pronssikausi

Butchery

1. Preparing meat by killing and cutting up an animal
2. Slaughtering or killing many people eg in battle.
Catala: 1. carnisseria 2. matança
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. schlachten 2. niedermetzeln
Español: 1. carnicería 2. matanza
Français:
Italiano: 1. macellazione 2. massacro
Latviešu: 1. kautuve, 2. slaktiņš
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: 1.slacht 2. slachting
Norsk: 1. slakte 2. slakte
Polski:
Português: 1. talho 2. matança 3. carnificina
Română: 1. sacrificare, 2. măcel, carnagiu
Русский:
Suomi:

C

Card weaving

Also called tablet weaving. Method of making cloth in which a piece of wood is used to separate the threads.
Catala: teixir per cartes o targetes
Česky:
Deutsch: Brettchenweben
Español: tejer por cartas o tarjetas
Français:
Italiano: tela compressa
Latviešu: celaiņu aušana
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: kaartweven
Norsk: brikkevev
Polski:
Português: tecelagem de cartão
Română: a ţese la războiul de ţesut
Русский:
Suomi:

Carving

To cut wood, stone etc into a shape (called a carving)
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: tallar
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. schnitzen (Holz) 2. hauen (Stein)
Español: tallar
Français:
Italiano: intagliare/ incidere
Latviešu: grebšana
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: 1. snijden (hout) 2. houwen (steen)
Norsk: snäkring
Polski:
Português: arte de gravar
Română: a sculpta
Русский:
Suomi:

Casting

An object formed by pouring liquid metal into a mould.
Catala: forja
Česky:
Deutsch: Guss
Español: fundición, objeto creado por fundición
Français:
Italiano: fusione
Latviešu: liešana
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: afgietsel
Norsk: støype
Polski:
Português: fundição
Română: turnare
Русский:
Suomi:

Cave

A large natural hollow chamber either underground or in the side of a mountain or cliff, often used as a dwelling or for storage.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: cova
Česky:
Deutsch: Höhle
Español: gruta, cueva
Français:
Italiano: grotta
Latviešu: ala
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: grot
Norsk: hule
Polski:
Português: caverna
Română: grotă
Русский:
Suomi:

Ceramic

A material, often clay pottery, baked at high temperature and then cooled.
Catala: ceràmica
Česky:
Deutsch: Keramik
Español: cerámica
Français:
Italiano: ceramica
Latviešu: keramika
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: aardewerk
Norsk: keramikk
Polski:
Português: cerâmica
Română: ceramică
Русский:
Suomi:

Chalk

A soft rock (calcium carbonate) often white or light in colour, formed from shell fragments of minute sea organisms.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: guix
Česky:
Deutsch: Kreide
Español: yeso
Français:
Italiano: gesso
Latviešu: krīts
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: krijt, kalk
Norsk: kalk
Polski:
Português: giz
Română: cretă
Русский:
Suomi:

Charcoal

Fuel made of black carbon formed by heating wood without air.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: carbó
Česky:
Deutsch: Holzkohle
Español: carbón
Français:
Italiano: carbone
Latviešu: kokogles
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: houtskool
Norsk: kul
Polski:
Português: carvão vegetal
Română: cărbune
Русский:
Suomi:

Chemistry

Science or study of matter; what things are made of, their elements, composition, properties and chemical reaction with other things.
Catala: química
Česky:
Deutsch: chemie
Español: química
Français:
Italiano: chimica
Latviešu: ķīmija
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: scheikunde
Norsk: kjemi
Polski:
Português: química
Română: chimie
Русский:
Suomi:

Church

A building for public worship, usually Christian
Catala: església
Česky:
Deutsch: Kirche
Español: iglesia
Français:
Italiano: chiesa
Latviešu: baznīca
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: kerk
Norsk: kirke
Polski:
Português: igreja
Română: biserică
Русский:
Suomi:

Clay

A poorly draining soil which is pliable when wet, used to make pottery, bricks and ceramics.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: argila
Česky:
Deutsch: Lehm
Español: arcilla
Français:
Italiano: argilla
Latviešu: māls
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: klei
Norsk: leire
Polski:
Português: argila
Română: argilă, lut
Русский:
Suomi:

Coinage

Metal coins, money
Catala: Eencunyació, monedes, sistema monetari
Česky:
Deutsch: Münze, Münzgeld
Español: acuñación, monedas, sistema monetario
Français:
Italiano: monete
Latviešu: naudas kalšana
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: munten
Norsk: mynt
Polski:
Português: cunhagem de moedas
Română: monedă, bani
Русский:
Suomi:

Colour

Eg red, green, blue, white
Catala: color
Česky:
Deutsch: Farbe
Español: color
Français:
Italiano: colore
Latviešu: krāsa
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: kleur
Norsk: farge
Polski:
Português: cor
Română: culoare
Русский:
Suomi:

Construction

1. The process of building something.
2. Something built, a building.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: 1. construcció 2. construcció, edifici
Česky:
Deutsch: Bau, Konstruktion
Español: 1. construcción 2. construcción, edificio
Français:
Italiano: costruzione
Latviešu: celtniecība
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: 1. bouw 2. constructie, maaksel
Norsk: 1. bygge 2. konstruksjon
Polski:
Português: 1. construção 2. estrutrura
Română: 1. a construi, 2. construcţie
Русский:
Suomi:

Container

Object such as a box or pot designed for holding or storing something
Catala: contenidor
Česky:
Deutsch: Behälter, Container
Español: contenedor
Français:
Italiano: contenitore
Latviešu: vācele
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: vat, bak, houder, doos, bus
Norsk: beholder
Polski:
Português: recipiente
Română: vas
Русский:
Suomi:

Cookery

The act of preparing and heating food.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: cuinar, cuina
Česky:
Deutsch: kochen, Nahrungszubereitung (f)
Español: cocinar, cocina
Français:
Italiano: preparazione del cibo
Latviešu: ēdiena gatavošana
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: koken, voedselbereiding
Norsk: koke
Polski:
Português: culinária
Română: a găti mâncare
Русский:
Suomi:

Copper

A soft reddish-brown metal (Cu).
Catala: coure
Česky:
Deutsch: Kupfer
Español: cobre
Français:
Italiano: rame
Latviešu: varš
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: koper
Norsk: kopper
Polski:
Português: cobre
Română: cupru, aramă
Русский:
Suomi:

Craft

1. A skill in designing and making something, usually by hand, carried out by a craftsperson.
2. A small boat.
Catala: 1. Artesania 2. Embarcació
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. Handwerk 2. (kleines) Boot
Español: 1. Artesanía 2. Embarcación
Français:
Italiano: 1. artigianato 2. piccola imbarcazione
Latviešu: amatniecība, amats
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: 1. handwerk, ambacht 2. vaartuig
Norsk: 1. Håndverk 2. Fartøy
Polski:
Português: 1. artsanato 2 bote
Română: 1. meşteşug 2. navă
Русский:
Suomi:

Crannog

A lake dwelling in Scotland or Ireland, houses built on a natural or man-made island.
Catala: palafit
Česky:
Deutsch: Crannog
Español: palafito
Français:
Italiano: crannog (palafitta)
Latviešu: ezermītne
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: paalwoning
Norsk: crannog
Polski:
Português: crannóg
Română: crannog
Русский:
Suomi:

Cremation

The burning of a body after death.
Catala: cremació
Česky:
Deutsch: (Leichen-)Verbrennung (f), Kremation (f)
Español: cremación
Français:
Italiano: cremazione
Latviešu: 1. mirušā dedzināšana 2.kremācija
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: crematie, lijkverbranding
Norsk: kremering
Polski:
Português: cremação
Română: incinerare
Русский:
Suomi:

D

Domestic animal

Tame animal such as a cow, sheep or goat, often kept to provide food. Also used today of dogs or cats.
Catala: animal domèstic
Česky:
Deutsch: Haustier
Español: animal doméstico
Français:
Italiano: animale domestico
Latviešu: mājdzīvnieki
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: huisdier
Norsk: husdyr
Polski:
Português: animal do doméstico
Română: animal domestic
Русский:
Suomi:

Drill

1. To make a hole in something by boring; a tool used for boring holes
2. Military exercise or practice
3. Shallow furrow in which seeds are sown in farming
Catala: 1. perforar, foradar
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. bohren 2. drillen 3. (Saat-)Furche
Español: 1. Ttaladrar, perforar 2. instrucción 3. surco
Français:
Italiano: 1. forare, trapanare trapano 2. esercitazione
Latviešu: 1.urbis 2. urbt
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: 1. boren 2. africhten 3. voor
Norsk: 1. bor 2.drill 3. fure
Polski:
Português: 1. perfurar 2. exercitar 3. lavrar
Română: 1. a fora, 2. instrucţie militară, 3. mraniţă
Русский:
Suomi:

Dye

Plant or vegetable substance used to change the colour of something eg cloth.
Catala: tint
Česky:
Deutsch: Farbe
Español: tinte
Français:
Italiano: tintura
Latviešu: krāsot, krāsviela
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: verf
Norsk: farge
Polski:
Português: tingir
Română: vopsea
Русский:
Suomi:

E

Earthwork

A fortification with walls built of earth.
Catala: terraplè
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. Erdwerk (neolithisch) 2. Wallanlage, Ringwall
Español: terraplén
Français:
Italiano: terrapieno
Latviešu: zemes uzbērums, valnis
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: aardwerk
Norsk: vallanlegg
Polski:
Português: terraplanagem
Română: val de pământ
Русский:
Svenska: vallanläggning
Suomi:

Education

1. The process of teaching or training.
2. The learning received.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: educació
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. Unterricht, Lehre 2. Bildung
Español: educación
Français:
Italiano: insegnamento
Latviešu: izglītība
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: onderwijs
Norsk: undervisning
Polski:
Português: educação 1. ensino 2. aprendizagem
Română: educaţie
Русский:
Suomi:

Engrave

To carve a design or letters on wood, stone or metal (an engraving).
Catala: gravar
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. schneiden (Holz) 2. gravieren (Stein, Metall)
Español: grabar
Français:
Italiano: incisione
Latviešu: gravīra, grebums
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: 1.snijden (hout) 2. graveren (steen, metaal)
Norsk: gravering
Polski:
Português: gravura
Română: a grava
Русский:
Suomi:

Environment

The surroundings or conditions within which something or someone lives.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: ambient
Česky:
Deutsch: Umgebung (f), Umwelt (f)
Español: ambiente
Français:
Italiano: ambiente
Latviešu: vide, apkārtne
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: milieu, omgeving
Norsk: område
Polski:
Português: ambiente
Română: mediu înconjurător
Русский:
Suomi:

Ethics

Rules of behaviour or moral principles of a person or society.
Catala: ètica
Česky:
Deutsch: ethik
Español: ética
Français:
Italiano: etica
Latviešu: ētika
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: ethiek
Norsk: etikk
Polski:
Português: ética
Română: etică
Русский:
Suomi:

Ethnoarchaeology

The study of a people or society in order to understand behavioural relationships
Catala: etnoarqueologia
Česky:
Deutsch: Ethnoarchäologie
Español: etnoarqueología
Français:
Italiano: etnoarcheologia
Latviešu: etnoarheoloģija
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: etnoarcheologie
Norsk: etnoarkeologi
Polski:
Português: etno-arqueologia
Română: etnoarheologie
Русский:
Suomi:

Event

Something that happens, an incident.
Catala: esdeveniment, succés
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. Geschehen 2. Event, Veranstaltung
Español: evento, suceso
Français:
Italiano: evento
Latviešu: pasākums
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: gebeurtenis
Norsk: hendelse
Polski:
Português: evento
Română: eveniment, întâmplare
Русский:
Suomi:

Excavation

The process of uncovering, examing and recording remains on an archaeological site (sometimes called a "dig").
Catala: excavació
Česky:
Deutsch: Ausgrabung, archäologische Grabung
Español: excavación
Français:
Italiano: scavo
Latviešu: izrakumi
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: opgraving
Norsk: utgravning
Polski:
Português: escavação
Română: săpătură arheologică
Русский:
Suomi:

Exhibition

A display of works of art or historic artefacts to the public.
Catala: exposició
Česky:
Deutsch: Ausstellung
Español: exposición
Français:
Italiano: esibizione/ mostra
Latviešu: izstāde, ekspozīcija
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: tentoonstelling
Norsk: utstilling
Polski:
Português: exposição
Română: expoziţie
Русский:
Suomi:

Experiment

A trial activity carried out in order to test a theory.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: experiment
Česky:
Deutsch: Experiment
Español: experimento
Français:
Italiano: esperimento
Latviešu: eksperiments
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: experiment
Norsk: eksperiment
Polski:
Português: experiência
Română: experienţă, experiment
Русский:
Suomi:

Experimental archaeology

A scientific approach to testing theories based on archeological evidence such as artifacts and structures.
Catala: arqueologia experimental
Česky: experimentální archeologie
Deutsch: Experimentelle Archäologie
Español: arqueología experimental
Français: archéologie expérimentale
Italiano: archeologia sperimentale
Latviešu: eksperimentālā arheoloģija
Lietuvių: eksperimentinė archeologija
Nederlands: experimentele archeologie
Norsk: eksperimentell arkeologi
Polski: archeologia eksperymentalna - archeologia doświadczalna
Português: arqueologia experimental
Română: arheologie experimentală
Русский: экспериментальная археология
Suomi: kokeellinen arkeologia

F

Fibre

A fine thread which can be made into textiles.
Catala: fibra
Česky:
Deutsch: Faser
Español: fibra
Français:
Italiano: fibra
Latviešu: šķiedra
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: vezel
Norsk: fiber
Polski:
Português: fibra
Română: fibră, fir
Русский:
Suomi:

Fire

Burning of wood, charcoal or other fuel to produce flames, heat and light eg for warmth or cooking.
Catala: foc
Česky:
Deutsch: Feuer
Español: fuego
Français:
Italiano: fuoco
Latviešu: uguns
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: vuur
Norsk: fyr
Polski:
Português: fogo
Română: foc
Русский:
Suomi:

Fire making

Lighting something (eg wood, paper) to make it burn.
Catala: fer foc
Česky:
Deutsch: Feuer machen
Español: hacer fuego
Français:
Italiano: accensione del fuoco
Latviešu: uguns radīšana
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: vuur maken
Norsk: gjøre opp ild
Polski:
Português: fazer fogo
Română: a aprinde focul
Русский:
Suomi:

Fireplace

Place such as a hearth designed to contain a fire eg for heating or cooking.
Catala: fogar
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. Feuerstelle 2. Herd (erhöht)
Español: hogar
Français:
Italiano: focolare
Latviešu: ugunskurs, kamīns
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: vuurplaats
Norsk: bål
Polski:
Português: lareira
Română: cuptor
Русский:
Suomi:

Fish

Cold-blooded creature with fins and scales that swims in water, often used as food
Catala: peix
Česky:
Deutsch: Fisch
Español: pescado, pez
Français:
Italiano: pesce
Latviešu: zivs
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: vis
Norsk: fisk
Polski:
Português: peixe
Română: peşte
Русский:
Suomi:

Flint

A very hard form of a sedimentary siliceous rock found in chalk and limestone, used as a tool, a weapon or to produce a spark and make fire.
Catala: silex
Česky:
Deutsch: Feuerstein, Flint
Español: sílex, pedernal
Français:
Italiano: selce
Latviešu: krams
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: silex, vuursteen
Norsk: flint
Polski:
Português: silex
Română: silex
Русский:
Suomi:

Food

Anything eaten in a solid form eg meat, bread, vegetables to provide nourishment and energy.
Catala: menjar
Česky:
Deutsch: Nahrung
Español: comida
Français:
Italiano: cibo, nutrimento
Latviešu: pārtika, ēdiens
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: voedsel
Norsk: mat
Polski:
Português: alimento
Română: mâncare
Русский:
Suomi:

Forage

To look for and gather wild food such as nuts, berries, herbs et cetera.
Catala: farratge
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. Futtersuche (Tier) 2. Nahrungssuche, Sammeln (Mensch)
Español: forrajeo
Français:
Italiano: 1. approvvigionamento 2. foraggio
Latviešu: 1. vākšana 2. lopbarība
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: fourageren, verzamelen
Norsk: samle
Polski:
Português: forrageira
Română: a merge la cules
Русский:
Suomi:

Funerary

To do with a funeral or burial of the dead.
Catala: funerari
Česky:
Deutsch: Beerdigung, Begräbnis, Leich (österr.)
Español: funerario
Français:
Italiano: funerario
Latviešu: apbedīšana
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: begrafenis
Norsk: begravelse
Polski:
Português: funerária
Română: funerar
Русский:
Suomi:

Furniture

Movable household equipment such as tables, chairs, beds, et cetera.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: mobiliari
Česky:
Deutsch: Möbel, Mobiliar
Español: mobiliario
Français:
Italiano: arredamento
Latviešu: mēbeles
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: meubilair, meubels
Norsk: møbler
Polski:
Português: mobiliário
Română: mobilă
Русский:
Suomi:

G

Gather

To bring together, especially to look for wild food such as nuts, berries, herbs et cetera. To forage.
Catala: recol·lectar
Česky:
Deutsch: sammeln
Español: recolectar
Français:
Italiano: raccolta
Latviešu: savākšana
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: verzamelen
Norsk: samle
Polski:
Português: reunir
Română: a culege, a aduna
Русский:
Suomi:

Glaze

A hard glassy coating on pottery.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: vidriat
Česky:
Deutsch: Glasur
Español: vidriado
Français:
Italiano: smalto
Latviešu: 1. glazūra 2. vāpēt
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: glazuur
Norsk: glasur
Polski:
Português: esmalte
Română: smalţ
Русский:
Suomi:

Glue

Substance used to stick two things together.
Catala: cola
Česky:
Deutsch: Leim, Kleber, Klebstoff
Español: pegamento, cola
Français:
Italiano: colla, collante
Latviešu: līme
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: lijm
Norsk: lim
Polski:
Português: cola
Română: lipici
Русский:
Suomi:

Gold

A very precious yellow metal used for decoration, jewellery, coins et cetera (Au).
Catala: or
Česky:
Deutsch: Gold
Español: oro
Français: or
Italiano: oro
Latviešu: zelts
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: goud
Norsk: guld
Polski:
Português: ouro
Română: aur
Русский:
Suomi:

H

Helmet

A hard protective covering for the head, eg in battle.
Catala: casc
Česky:
Deutsch: Helm
Español: casco
Français:
Italiano: elmo
Latviešu: bruņucepure
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: helm
Norsk: hjelm
Polski:
Português: elmo
Română: coif
Русский:
Suomi:

Heritage management

Preserving and protecting significant cultural sites and artefacts.
Catala: gestió, protección del patrimoni
Česky:
Deutsch: Denkmalpflege, Denkmalschutz
Español: gestión, protección del patrimonio
Français:
Italiano: gestione del patrimonio culturale
Latviešu: mantojuma apsaimniekošana
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: beheer van cultureel erfgoed
Norsk: kulturminnemyndighet
Polski:
Português: gestão do património
Română: protecţia patrimoniului cultural
Русский:
Suomi:

Horn

1. sharp growth on the heads of some animals, eg cattle.
2. of an object or carving made of horn.
3. a musical instrument or object made of or shaped like an animal's horn eg hunting horn, drinking horn.
Catala: 1. banya, 2. banya, 3. banya
Česky:
Deutsch: 2. Horn, Gehörn 2. aus Horn 3. (Blas-)Horn
Español: 1. cuerno, 2. cuerna, 3. cuerno
Français:
Italiano: corno
Latviešu: rags
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: hoorn
Norsk: horn
Polski:
Português: 1. haste 2. artefacto em osso
Română: corn
Русский:
Suomi:

Horse

Large animal with hoofs, long legs and a mane of hair, used for riding or to pull a cart et cetera.
Catala: cavall
Česky:
Deutsch: Pferd
Español: caballo
Français:
Italiano: cavallo
Latviešu: zirgs
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: paard
Norsk: hest
Polski:
Português: cavalo
Română: cal
Русский:
Suomi:

Hunt

1. To chase and kill animals eg for food.
2. The chase itself.
Catala: 1. caça, 2. cacera
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. jagen 2. Jagd
Español: 1. caza, 2. cacería
Français:
Italiano: caccia
Latviešu: medīt
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: 1. jagen 2. jacht
Norsk: 1. jage 2. jakt
Polski:
Português: caçada
Română: 1. a vâna 2. vânătoare
Русский:
Suomi:

Hygiene

Keeping oneself and one's surroundings clean in order to stay healthy and prevent the spread of disease.
Catala: higiene
Česky:
Deutsch: Hygiene
Español: higiene
Français:
Italiano: igene
Latviešu: higiēna
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: hygiëne
Norsk: hygiene
Polski:
Português: higiene
Română: igienă
Русский:
Suomi:

I

IMTAL

The International Museum Theatre Alliance has, since 1990, promoted theatre and live performance as interpretive techniques in cultural institutions.

IMTAL-Europe, IMTAL-Americas and IMTALAP-Asia Pacific are affiliated membership organisations that foster and develop diverse forms of live interpretation in museums, galleries, science centres and historic sites all over the world.

More details: http://www.imtal-europe.com

Interpretation

Presenting and explaining the meaning of something to make it easier to understand.
Catala: interpretació
Česky:
Deutsch: Darstellung
Español: interpretación
Français:
Italiano: interpretazione
Latviešu: interpretācija
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: interpretatie
Norsk: tolkning
Polski:
Português: interpretação
Română: interpretare
Русский:
Suomi:

Inuit

People living in the Arctic, Greenland and Alaska (Eskimo).
Catala: Inuit
Česky:
Deutsch: Inuit (Eskimo)
Español: Inuit (esquimal)
Français:
Italiano: inuit
Latviešu: inuīti
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: Inuit (Eskimo)
Norsk: Inuit
Polski:
Português: Inuíte
Română: eschimos
Русский:
Suomi:

Iron

Hard silvery-white magnetic metal (Fe).
Catala: ferro
Česky:
Deutsch: Eisen
Español: hierro
Français: fer
Italiano: ferro
Latviešu: dzelzs
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: ijzer
Norsk: jern
Polski:
Português: ferro
Română: fier
Русский:
Suomi:

Iron Age

Period from about 500BC to the early centuries AD, occurring after the Bronze Age, and marked by the widespread use of iron or steel.
Definition source Wikipedia
Catala: edat del ferro
Česky:
Deutsch: Eisenzeit
Español: edad del hierro
Français: âge de fer
Italiano: etá del ferro
Latviešu: dzelzs laikmets
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: ijzertijd
Norsk: jernalderen
Polski:
Português: idade do ferro
Română: epoca fierului
Русский:
Suomi:

Ivory

Hard white material from the tusks (large teeth) of elephants.
Catala: ivori
Česky:
Deutsch: Elfenbein
Español: marfil
Français:
Italiano: avorio
Latviešu: ziloņkauls
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: ivoor
Norsk: elfenben
Polski:
Português: marfim
Română: fildeş
Русский:
Suomi:

J

Jewellery

Articles worn for personal adornment eg bracelets, necklaces, brooches and rings.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: joieria
Česky:
Deutsch: Schmuck, Juwelen
Español: joyería
Français: biyouterie
Italiano: gioielli/ornamenti
Latviešu: rotaslietas
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: juwelen, sieraden
Norsk: smykke
Polski:
Português: joalheria
Română: bijuterie
Русский:
Suomi:

K

Knapping

the shaping of flint, chert, obsidian or other hard material by means of soft percussion, hard percussion or flaking to shape the stone into a tool, decoration or otherwise.
Catala: talla
Česky:
Deutsch: Flint schlagen
Español: talla
Français:
Italiano: scheggiatura
Latviešu: apstrāde
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: vuursteenbewerking
Norsk: slå flint
Polski:
Português: lascar
Română: ciobire
Русский:
Suomi:

Knife

A sharp blade with a short handle used for cutting eg as a tool for preparing food or a weapon for fighting.
Catala: ganivet
Česky:
Deutsch: Messer
Español: cuchillo
Français:
Italiano: coltello, pugnale
Latviešu: nazis
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: mes
Norsk: kniv
Polski:
Português: faca
Română: cuţit
Русский:
Suomi:

L

Lake dwelling

A house built on an island or on stilts in the water. In Scotland or Ireland, these are called crannog: houses originally built over water, later due to deposition turned into man-made islands.
Catala: palafit
Česky:
Deutsch: Pfahlbauten
Español: palafito
Français:
Italiano: palafitta (su lago)
Latviešu: ezermītne
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: paalwoning
Norsk: pæle bolig
Polski:
Português: ter habitação
Română: locuinţă lacustră
Русский:
Suomi:

Landscape

The visible features of an area of land, including mountains, hills and rivers, vegetation, land use, buildings, as well as elements such as weather conditions.
Definition source Wikipedia
Catala: paisatge
Česky:
Deutsch: Landschaft
Español: paisaje
Français:
Italiano: paesaggio
Latviešu: ainava
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: landschap
Norsk: landskap
Polski:
Português: paisagem
Română: peisaj
Русский:
Suomi:

LARP

Live Action Role-Playing is a game where participants physically act out their characters' actions. Players pursue goals within a fictional setting, while interacting with each other in character.
Definition source Wikipedia
Catala: recreació històrica en viu
Česky:
Deutsch: LARP
Español: recreación histórica en vivo
Français:
Italiano: gioco di ruolo dal vivo
Latviešu: brīvdabas lomu spēles
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: levend rollenspel
Norsk: levende rollespill
Polski:
Português: Live action (RPG)
Română: LARP
Русский:
Suomi:

Leather

Tanned skin of an animal eg as used for clothing.
Catala: pell, cuir
Česky:
Deutsch: Leder
Español: piel, cuero
Français:
Italiano: pelle
Latviešu: āda
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: leer
Norsk: lær
Polski:
Português: couro
Română: piele
Русский:
Suomi:

Light

1. Brightness from a candle, a fire, the sun et cetera eg daylight
2. Not dark
3. Not heavy
Catala: 1. llum, 2. clar, 3. lleuger
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. Licht 2. hell 3. leicht
Español: 1. luz, 2. claro, 3. ligero
Français:
Italiano: 1.luce 2.illuminato 3.leggero
Latviešu: gaisma, apgaismojums
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: licht
Norsk: lys
Polski:
Português: 1. luz 2. luminoso 3. leve
Română: 1. lumină 2. lumină 3. uşor
Русский:
Suomi:

Living history

An activity involving historical tools, activities and dress in an interactive presentation to give observers and participants a sense of stepping back in time.
Definition source: Wikipedia
Catala: living history
Česky:
Deutsch: living history
Español: living history
Français: histoire vivante
Italiano: living history
Latviešu: dzīvā vēsture
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: living history
Norsk: levende historie
Polski:
Português: história viva
Română: reconstituire istorică
Русский:
Suomi:

M

Megalith

From Greek mega = large and lith = stone. Can be 1. a single stone or 2. a monument such as a tomb made of several large stones.
Source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megalith
Catala: megalit
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. Megalith, 2. Megalithgrab, Großsteingrab, Hünengrab
Español: megalito
Français:
Italiano: megalite
Latviešu: megalīts
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: 1. megaliet 2. hunebed
Norsk: megalit, megalittisk monument
Polski:
Português: megálito
Română: megalit
Русский:
Suomi:

Metal

Element or alloy such as iron, bronze or tin.
Catala: metall
Česky:
Deutsch: Metall (rein), Legierung (Gemisch)
Español: metal
Français:
Italiano: metallo
Latviešu: metāls
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: metaal
Norsk: metal
Polski:
Português: metal
Română: metal
Русский:
Suomi:

Method

A way of doing something
Catala: mètode
Česky:
Deutsch: Methode
Español: método
Français:
Italiano: metodo
Latviešu: metode
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: methode
Norsk: metode
Polski:
Português: método
Română: metodă
Русский:
Suomi:

Museum

“A non-profit institution open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its environment for the purposes of education, study and enjoyment.” (ICOM Statutes, approved in Vienna (Austria) – August 24, 2007. Art. 3, Section 1.
Catala: museu
Česky:
Deutsch: Museum
Español: museo
Français:
Italiano: museo
Latviešu: muzejs
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: museum
Norsk: museum
Polski:
Português: museu
Română: muzeu
Русский:
Suomi:

Music

Sound with rhythm and melody produced by singing or by musical instruments.
Catala: música
Česky:
Deutsch: Musik, Gesang (nur vokal)
Español: música
Français: musique
Italiano: musica
Latviešu: mūzika
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: muziek
Norsk: musikk
Polski:
Português: música
Română: muzică
Русский:
Suomi:

N

Navigation

The art of steering a ship or finding one's way.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: navegació
Česky:
Deutsch: Navigation
Español: navegación
Français:
Italiano: navigazione
Latviešu: navigācija
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: navigatie
Norsk: navigering
Polski:
Português: navegação
Română: navigaţie
Русский:
Suomi:

Nomad

A wanderer - a member of a people without a permanent home, who travel from place to place seeking food and pasture.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: nòmada
Česky:
Deutsch: Nomade
Español: nómada
Français:
Italiano: nomade
Latviešu: klejotājs
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: nomade
Norsk:
Polski:
Português: nómada
Română: nomad
Русский:
Suomi:

Nourishment

Supplying someone with food; the goodness obtained from the food
Catala: nutrició
Česky:
Deutsch: Ernährung
Español: nutrición, nutrirse
Français:
Italiano: nutrimento
Latviešu: barība, barošanās
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: voeding
Norsk: ernæring
Polski:
Português: nutrição
Română: hrănire, hrană
Русский:
Suomi:

O

Obsidian

Volcanic glass.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: obsidiana
Česky:
Deutsch: Obsidian
Español: obsidiana
Français:
Italiano: ossidiana
Latviešu: obsidiāns
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: obsidiaan, lavaglas
Norsk: obsidian
Polski:
Português: obsidiana
Română: obsidian
Русский:
Suomi:

Open-air museum

“A scientific collection in the open air of various types of structures illustrating settlement patterns, dwellings, economy and technology”. Source: (AEOM [Association of European Open Air Museums] Constitution Article 1, Association of European Open Air Museums, Tagungsberichte 1966-1972, 109).
Catala: museu a l’aire lliure
Česky:
Deutsch: Freilichtmuseum
Español: museo al aire libre
Français:
Italiano: museo all'aria aperta
Latviešu: brīvdabas muzejs
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: openluchtmuseum
Norsk: friluftsmuseum
Polski:
Português: museu ao ar livre
Română: muzeu în aer liber
Русский:
Suomi:

P

Pigment

Plant or vegetable substance used as a dye to change the colour of something.
Catala: pigment
Česky:
Deutsch: Pigment
Español: pigmento
Français:
Italiano: pigmento
Latviešu: pigments
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: kleurstof
Norsk: pigment
Polski:
Português: pigmento
Română: pigment
Русский:
Suomi:

Pitch

1. Thick black sticky substance obtained from coal tar.
2. To set up camp.
3. To throw something.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: Quitrà
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. Pech 2. kampieren, lagern 3. werfen
Español: 1. Brea; 2. Acampar; 3. Lanzar
Français:
Italiano: 1. pece 2. campo 3. gettare
Latviešu: 1. darva 2. uzstādīt 3. izmest
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: 1. pek 2. kamp opslaan 3. werpen
Norsk: 1. Bek 2. Teltplass 3. Kaste
Polski:
Português: 1. piso alcatroado 2. acampamento 3. arremesso
Română: 1. smoală 2. a instala tabăra, a tăbărî (old) 3. a arunca
Русский:
Suomi:

Plant

A small natural living organism eg a herb, flower or shrub.
Catala: planta
Česky:
Deutsch: Pflanze (f), Gewächs (n)
Español: planta
Français:
Italiano: pianta
Latviešu: augs
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: gewas, plant
Norsk: plante
Polski:
Português: planta
Română: plantă
Русский:
Suomi:

Polish

To rub a stone, piece of wood et cetera until it is smooth and glossy.
Catala: polit
Česky:
Deutsch: polieren
Español: pulir
Français:
Italiano: levigatura
Latviešu: pulēt
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: polijsten
Norsk: polering
Polski:
Português: polir
Română: a netezi, a poliza
Русский:
Suomi:

Post depositional process

Later changes to archaeological remains eg by animals, humans, organic and inorganic
Catala: procès postdeposicional
Česky:
Deutsch: post-depositioneller Prozess, thaphonomischer Prozess
Español: proceso post deposicional
Français:
Italiano: processo post deposizionale
Latviešu: stāvokli izmainoši procesi, kas notiek pēc arheoloģisko liecību nonākšanas zemē
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: post-depositioneel proces
Norsk: post deponerings prosess
Polski:
Português: processo pós-disposicional
Română: proces postdepoziţional
Русский:
Suomi:

Primitive technology

Technology of or pertaining to an earliest or original stage or state
Catala: tecnologia primitiva
Česky:
Deutsch: einfache Technologie
Español: tecnología primitiva
Français:
Italiano: tecnologia primitiva
Latviešu: primitīvās tehnoloģijas
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: primitieve technologie
Norsk: primitiv teknologi
Polski:
Português: tecnologia primitiva
Română: tehnologie primitivă
Русский:
Suomi:

Projectile

Something that is thrown especially as a weapon eg a stone, arrow or spear
Catala: projectil
Česky:
Deutsch: Geschoss, Projektil
Español: proyectil
Français:
Italiano: proiettile, arma da getto
Latviešu: šāviņš, lādiņš
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: projectiel
Norsk: prosjektil
Polski:
Português: projéctil
Română: proiectil
Русский:
Suomi:

R

Reconstruction

A rebuilding of a destroyed structure based on available evidence to show how the original might have looked.
also: (re)construction
Catala: recontrucció
Česky:
Deutsch: Rekonstruktion
Español: reconstrucción
Français:
Italiano: ricostruzione
Latviešu: rekonstrukcija
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: reconstructie
Norsk: rekonstruksjon
Polski:
Português: reconstrução
Română: reconstrucţie
Русский:
Suomi:

Religion

Belief in and worship of a god or gods.
Catala: religió
Česky:
Deutsch: Religion
Español: religión
Français:
Italiano: religione
Latviešu: reliģija
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: godsdienst
Norsk: religion
Polski:
Português: religião
Română: religie
Русский:
Suomi:

Review

A survey or critical examination of a subject or past event.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: revisió
Česky:
Deutsch: Rezension (Text), Besprechung, kritische Würdigung
Español: revisión
Français:
Italiano: revisione
Latviešu: pārskats
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: recensie, terugblik, overzicht
Norsk: gjennomgåelse, anmeldelse
Polski:
Português: revisão
Română: critică
Русский:
Suomi:

Rope

Strong thick cord made by twisting fibres of hemp together.
Catala: corda
Česky:
Deutsch: Tau, Seil, Tampen (Schifffahrt), Reep (Schifffahrt)
Español: cuerda
Français:
Italiano: corda
Latviešu: virve
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: touw
Norsk: tau
Polski:
Português: corda
Română: funie
Русский:
Suomi:

S

Sculpture

Large model carved from stone, clay or wood.
Catala: escultura
Česky:
Deutsch: Skulptur
Español: escultura
Français:
Italiano: scultura
Latviešu: skulptūra
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: beeldhouwwerk
Norsk: skulptur
Polski:
Português: escultura
Română: sculptură
Русский:
Suomi:

Settlement

A place where people live, such as a group of houses or village; a community.
Catala: assentament
Česky:
Deutsch: Siedlung
Español: asentamiento
Français:
Italiano: insediamento
Latviešu: dzīvesvieta
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: nederzetting
Norsk: busetting
Polski:
Português: aglomerado
Română: aşezare
Русский:
Suomi:

Ship

A large vessel for travelling over water, usually the sea (see also boat).
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: vaixell
Česky:
Deutsch: Schiff
Español: barco
Français:
Italiano: nave
Latviešu: kuģis
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: schip
Norsk: skip
Polski:
Português: navio
Română: navă, corabie
Русский:
Suomi:

Shoe

Covering for the foot usually made from leather.
Catala: sabata
Česky:
Deutsch: Schuh
Español: zapato
Français:
Italiano: scarpa
Latviešu: apavs, kurpe
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: schoen
Norsk: sko
Polski:
Português: sapato, calçado, freio
Română: pantof
Русский:
Suomi:

Smelting

Processing an ore such as iron by melting it in order to separate out the crude metal.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: fundició
Česky:
Deutsch: Verhüttung
Español: fundición
Français:
Italiano: fusione
Latviešu: kausēšana
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: smelten (van erts)
Norsk: smelte
Polski:
Português: fundição
Română: metalurgie
Русский:
Suomi:

Sociology

Scientific study of the nature, structure and workings of human society.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: sociologia
Česky:
Deutsch: Soziologie
Español: sociología
Français:
Italiano: sociologia
Latviešu: socioloģija
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: sociologie
Norsk: sosiologi
Polski:
Português: sociologia
Română: sociologie
Русский:
Suomi:

Spear

A long stick with a sharp point at one end used as a weapon for throwing or fighting.
Catala: llança
Česky:
Deutsch: Speer
Español: lanza
Français: javelot
Italiano: lancia
Latviešu: šķēps
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: speer
Norsk: spyd
Polski:
Português: lança
Română: suliţă
Русский:
Suomi:

Spinning

1. Drawing and twisting fibres into thread
2. Rotating very quickly
Catala: filar
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. spinnen 2. rotieren, wirbeln
Español: 1. hilar; 2. rotar
Français:
Italiano: 1. filatura 2 .rotazione veloce
Latviešu: vērpšana
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: 1. spinnen 2. ronddraaien
Norsk: 1. spinne 2. spinne
Polski:
Português: 1. fiação 2. movimento giratório
Română: 1. a toarce 2. a se învârti
Русский:
Suomi:

Stone

Natural mass of minerals from the Earth's crust. A stone or boulder.
Catala: pedra
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. Stein (m) (min.); 2. Stein (m), Kern (m) (bot.)
Español: piedra
Français:
Italiano: 1. pietra
Latviešu: akmens
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: 1. natuursteen, steen 2. pit
Norsk: stein
Polski:
Português: pedra
Română: piatră
Русский:
Suomi:

Stone Age

A broad prehistoric period, lasting about 2.5 million years, when humans and earlier species like Australopithecus and Paranthropus, widely used stone to make tools.
Definition source Wikipedia
Catala: edad de pedra
Česky:
Deutsch: Steinzeit
Español: edad de piedra
Français: âge de pierre
Italiano: etá della pietra
Latviešu: akmens laikmets
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: steentijd
Norsk: steinalder
Polski:
Português: idade da pedra
Română: epoca pietrei
Русский:
Suomi:

Survival

Staying alive or continued existence.
Catala: sobreviure
Česky:
Deutsch: Überleben
Español: sobrevivir
Français:
Italiano: sopravvivenza
Latviešu: izdzīvot
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: overleving, survival
Norsk: overleve
Polski:
Português: sobrevivência
Română: supravieţuire
Русский:
Suomi:

T

Tar

Dark sticky liquid obtained from coal or wood.
Catala: quitrà
Česky:
Deutsch: Teer
Español: brea, alquitrán
Français:
Italiano: catrame, pece
Latviešu: darva
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: teer
Norsk: tjære
Polski:
Português: alcatrão
Română:
Русский: дёготь
Suomi:

Technique

Way of doing something using mechanical or practical skill.
Catala: tècnica
Česky:
Deutsch: Technik
Español: técnica
Français: technique
Italiano: tecnica
Latviešu: tehnika
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: techniek
Norsk: teknikk
Polski:
Português: técnica
Română: tehnică
Русский:
Suomi:

Technology

The practical use of scientific knowledge in everyday life; the technical skills available at a particular time in history to a civilization or a group of people.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: tecnologia
Česky:
Deutsch: Technologie
Español: tecnología
Français: technologie
Italiano: tecnologia
Latviešu: tehnoloģija
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: technologie
Norsk: teknologi
Polski:
Português: tecnologia
Română: tehnologie
Русский:
Suomi:

Tent

A shelter made of canvas or other material supported by poles or a frame and fastened to the ground with ropes and pegs, that can be taken down and carried from place to place.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: tenda de campanya
Česky:
Deutsch: Zelt
Español: tienda de campaña
Français:
Italiano: tenda
Latviešu: telts
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: tent
Norsk: telt
Polski:
Português: tenda
Română: cort
Русский:
Suomi:

Textile

Cloth or fabric made by weaving.
Catala: tèxtil
Česky:
Deutsch: Textil, Gewebe
Español: textil
Français:
Italiano: tessuto
Latviešu: tekstils
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: textiel
Norsk: tekstil
Polski:
Português: têxtil
Română: ţesătură
Русский:
Suomi:

Thatch

A roof covering of straw or reeds, et cetera.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: terrat de palla
Česky:
Deutsch: Ried-, Reet-, Reithdach (Schilf), Strohdach (Getreidestroh)
Español: tejado de paja
Français: toit de chaume
Italiano: tetto di paglia
Latviešu: niedru jumts, salmu jumts
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: rieten dak
Norsk: halmtak
Polski:
Português: palha
Română: acoperiş
Русский:
Suomi:

Theory

An idea or explanation which has not yet been proved.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: teoria
Česky:
Deutsch: Theorie
Español: teoría
Français:
Italiano: teoria
Latviešu: teorija
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: theorie
Norsk: teori
Polski:
Português: teoria
Română: teorie
Русский:
Suomi:

Tool

An object used for a purpose such as cutting or digging eg a knife, spade or hammer. Especially one used by hand.
Catala: eina
Česky:
Deutsch: Werkzeug, Gerät
Español: herramienta, útil
Français:
Italiano: strumento, utensile
Latviešu: priekšmets, lieta
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: gereedschap
Norsk: verktøy
Polski:
Português: ferramenta
Română: sculă, unealtă
Русский:
Suomi:

Tourism

The practice of travelling to and visiting places for pleasure and relaxation.
Catala: turisme
Česky:
Deutsch: Tourismus
Español: turismo
Français:
Italiano: turismo
Latviešu: tūrisms
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: toerisme
Norsk: turisme
Polski:
Português: turismo
Română: turism
Русский:
Suomi:

Trade

Buying and selling, the exchange of goods between people or peoples.
Catala: comerç
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. Handel (m) 2. Handwerk (n)
Español: comercio
Français:
Italiano: commercio
Latviešu: tirdzniecība
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: 1. handel 2. ambacht
Norsk: handel
Polski:
Português: comércio
Română: comerţ
Русский:
Suomi:

Transport

To carry (goods, passengers, etc) from one place to another; a vessel (boat, cart et cetera) used for this purpose.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: transport
Česky:
Deutsch: transportieren
Español: Transporte
Français:
Italiano: trasporto
Latviešu: transports
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: vervoeren
Norsk: transport
Polski:
Português: transporte
Română: transport
Русский:
Suomi:

U

Use wear analysis

A method of identifying the functions of tools by closely examining their working surfaces and edges
Definition source: Wikipedia
Catala: traceologia
Česky:
Deutsch: Gebrauchsspurenanalyse
Español: traceología
Français:
Italiano: aanalisi delle tracce d'uso, analisi funzionale, tracceologia
Latviešu: traseoloģija
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: gebruikssporenanalyse
Norsk: slitespors analyse
Polski:
Português: análise de Vestígios
Română: analiza urmelor
Русский:
Suomi:

W

Wattle and daub

Building material used for making walls - a woven lattice of wooden strips (wattle) is covered (daubed) with a sticky mixture of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung or straw. Used for 6,000 years and still important in many parts of the world.
Catala: tovot
Česky:
Deutsch: Lehmflechtwerk
Español: adobe
Français: torchis
Italiano: parete di graticcio e intonaco
Latviešu: klūgas un mālu java
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: vitselwerk
Norsk: leirklining
Polski:
Português: taipa
Română: chirpici
Русский:
Suomi:

Weapon

An object such as a sword or a spear, used to kill or injure people, usually in a war or fight.
Definition source Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: arma
Česky:
Deutsch: Waffe
Español: arma
Français:
Italiano: arma
Latviešu: ierocis
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: wapen
Norsk: våpen
Polski:
Português: arma, armamento
Română: armă
Русский:
Suomi:

Weaving

Method of making fabric in which two sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.
Definition source: Wikipedia
Catala: teixir
Česky:
Deutsch: Weben
Español: tejer
Français:
Italiano: tessitura
Latviešu: aušana
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: weven
Norsk: veving
Polski:
Português: tecelagem
Română: a ţese
Русский:
Suomi:

Wood

1. Hard material of trees used for burning, building, carving, tools and weapons.
2. A large area of trees, woodland
Catala: fusta
Česky:
Deutsch: 1. Holz 2. Wald
Español: madera
Français:
Italiano: legno
Latviešu: 1. mežš 2. malka 3. kokmateriāls
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: 1. hout 2. bos
Norsk: tre
Polski:
Português: 1. madeira, 2. região arborizada, 3. bosque
Română: 1. lemn 2. pădure
Русский:
Suomi:

Woodworking

The art of making or shaping something from wood, carpentry.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: ebenisteria
Česky:
Deutsch: Holzbearbeitung
Español: carpintería, ebanistería
Français:
Italiano: lavorazione del legno, ebanisteria
Latviešu: kokapstrāde
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: houtbewerking
Norsk: trearbeid
Polski:
Português: carpintaria
Română: tâmplărie
Русский:
Suomi:

Wool

Soft wavy hair of sheep and other animals such as goats which can be spun into yarn for knitting or weaving.
Definition source: Chambers 21st Century Dictionary
Catala: llana
Česky:
Deutsch: Wolle
Español: lana
Français:
Italiano: lana
Latviešu: vilna
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: wol
Norsk: ull
Polski:
Português:
Română: lână
Русский:
Suomi:

Ö

Ötzi

Well-preserved mummified remains of a man who lived about 5,300 years ago, found in 1991 in the Ötztal, a valley in the Italian Alps.
Catala: Ötzi
Česky:
Deutsch: Ötzi, Similaun-Mann, Mann vom Hauslabjoch
Español: Ötzi, Hombre de Similaun, Hombre de Hauslabjoch
Français:
Italiano: Ötzi, l'uomo venuto dal ghiaccio
Latviešu: Eci
Lietuvių:
Nederlands: Ötzi
Norsk: Ötzi
Polski:
Português: Ötzi
Română: Ötzi
Русский:
Suomi:

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